avconv: move metadata to options context.
[libav.git] / doc / avconv.texi
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1\input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
2
3@settitle avconv Documentation
4@titlepage
5@center @titlefont{avconv Documentation}
6@end titlepage
7
8@top
9
10@contents
11
12@chapter Synopsis
13
14The generic syntax is:
15
16@example
17@c man begin SYNOPSIS
18avconv [[infile options][@option{-i} @var{infile}]]... @{[outfile options] @var{outfile}@}...
19@c man end
20@end example
21
22@chapter Description
23@c man begin DESCRIPTION
24
25avconv is a very fast video and audio converter that can also grab from
26a live audio/video source. It can also convert between arbitrary sample
27rates and resize video on the fly with a high quality polyphase filter.
28
29The command line interface is designed to be intuitive, in the sense
30that avconv tries to figure out all parameters that can possibly be
31derived automatically. You usually only have to specify the target
32bitrate you want.
33
34As a general rule, options are applied to the next specified
35file. Therefore, order is important, and you can have the same
36option on the command line multiple times. Each occurrence is
37then applied to the next input or output file.
38
39@itemize
40@item
41To set the video bitrate of the output file to 64kbit/s:
42@example
43avconv -i input.avi -b 64k output.avi
44@end example
45
46@item
47To force the frame rate of the output file to 24 fps:
48@example
49avconv -i input.avi -r 24 output.avi
50@end example
51
52@item
53To force the frame rate of the input file (valid for raw formats only)
54to 1 fps and the frame rate of the output file to 24 fps:
55@example
56avconv -r 1 -i input.m2v -r 24 output.avi
57@end example
58@end itemize
59
60The format option may be needed for raw input files.
61
62By default avconv tries to convert as losslessly as possible: It
63uses the same audio and video parameters for the outputs as the one
64specified for the inputs.
65
66@c man end DESCRIPTION
67
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68@chapter Stream selection
69@c man begin STREAM SELECTION
70
f5bae2c6 71By default avconv tries to pick the "best" stream of each type present in input
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72files and add them to each output file. For video, this means the highest
73resolution, for audio the highest channel count. For subtitle it's simply the
74first subtitle stream.
75
76You can disable some of those defaults by using @code{-vn/-an/-sn} options. For
77full manual control, use the @code{-map} option, which disables the defaults just
78described.
79
80@c man end STREAM SELECTION
81
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82@chapter Options
83@c man begin OPTIONS
84
85@include fftools-common-opts.texi
86
87@section Main options
88
89@table @option
90
91@item -f @var{fmt}
92Force format.
93
94@item -i @var{filename}
95input file name
96
97@item -y
98Overwrite output files.
99
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100@item -c[:@var{stream_type}][:@var{stream_index}] @var{codec}
101@item -codec[:@var{stream_type}][:@var{stream_index}] @var{codec}
102Select an encoder (when used before an output file) or a decoder (when used
103before an input file) for one or more streams. @var{codec} is the name of a
104decoder/encoder or a special value @code{copy} (output only) to indicate that
105the stream is not to be reencoded.
106
107@var{stream_type} may be 'v' for video, 'a' for audio, 's' for subtitle and 'd'
108for data streams. @var{stream_index} is a global zero-based stream index if
109@var{stream_type} isn't given, otherwise it counts only streams of the given
110type. If @var{stream_index} is omitted, this option applies to all streams of
111the given type or all streams of any type if @var{stream_type} is missing as
112well (note that this only makes sense when all streams are of the same type or
113@var{codec} is @code{copy}).
114
115For example
116@example
117avconv -i INPUT -map 0 -c:v libx264 -c:a copy OUTPUT
118@end example
119encodes all video streams with libx264 and copies all audio streams.
120
121For each stream, the last matching @code{c} option is applied, so
122@example
123avconv -i INPUT -map 0 -c copy -c:v:1 libx264 -c:a:137 libvorbis OUTPUT
124@end example
125will copy all the streams except the second video, which will be encoded with
126libx264, and the 138th audio, which will be encoded with libvorbis.
127
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128@item -t @var{duration}
129Restrict the transcoded/captured video sequence
130to the duration specified in seconds.
131@code{hh:mm:ss[.xxx]} syntax is also supported.
132
133@item -fs @var{limit_size}
134Set the file size limit.
135
136@item -ss @var{position}
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137When used as an input option (before @code{-i}), seeks in this input file to
138@var{position}. When used as an output option (before an output filename),
139decodes but discards input until the timestamps reach @var{position}. This is
140slower, but more accurate.
141
142@var{position} may be either in seconds or in @code{hh:mm:ss[.xxx]} form.
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143
144@item -itsoffset @var{offset}
145Set the input time offset in seconds.
146@code{[-]hh:mm:ss[.xxx]} syntax is also supported.
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147The offset is added to the timestamps of the input files.
148Specifying a positive offset means that the corresponding
149streams are delayed by 'offset' seconds.
150
151@item -timestamp @var{time}
152Set the recording timestamp in the container.
153The syntax for @var{time} is:
154@example
155now|([(YYYY-MM-DD|YYYYMMDD)[T|t| ]]((HH[:MM[:SS[.m...]]])|(HH[MM[SS[.m...]]]))[Z|z])
156@end example
157If the value is "now" it takes the current time.
158Time is local time unless 'Z' or 'z' is appended, in which case it is
159interpreted as UTC.
160If the year-month-day part is not specified it takes the current
161year-month-day.
162
039267f1 163@item -metadata[:metadata_specifier] @var{key}=@var{value}
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164Set a metadata key/value pair.
165
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166An optional @var{metadata_specifier} may be given to set metadata
167on streams or chapters. See @code{-map_metadata} documentation for
168details.
169
170This option overrides metadata set with @code{-map_metadata}. It is
171also possible to delete metadata by using an empty value.
172
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173For example, for setting the title in the output file:
174@example
175avconv -i in.avi -metadata title="my title" out.flv
176@end example
177
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178To set the language of the second stream:
179@example
180avconv -i INPUT -metadata:s:1 language=eng OUTPUT
181@end example
182
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183@item -v @var{number}
184Set the logging verbosity level.
185
186@item -target @var{type}
187Specify target file type ("vcd", "svcd", "dvd", "dv", "dv50", "pal-vcd",
188"ntsc-svcd", ... ). All the format options (bitrate, codecs,
189buffer sizes) are then set automatically. You can just type:
190
191@example
192avconv -i myfile.avi -target vcd /tmp/vcd.mpg
193@end example
194
195Nevertheless you can specify additional options as long as you know
196they do not conflict with the standard, as in:
197
198@example
199avconv -i myfile.avi -target vcd -bf 2 /tmp/vcd.mpg
200@end example
201
202@item -dframes @var{number}
203Set the number of data frames to record.
204
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205@item -slang @var{code}
206Set the ISO 639 language code (3 letters) of the current subtitle stream.
207
208@end table
209
210@section Video Options
211
212@table @option
213@item -vframes @var{number}
214Set the number of video frames to record.
215@item -r @var{fps}
216Set frame rate (Hz value, fraction or abbreviation), (default = 25).
217@item -s @var{size}
218Set frame size. The format is @samp{wxh} (avserver default = 160x128, avconv default = same as source).
219The following abbreviations are recognized:
220@table @samp
221@item sqcif
222128x96
223@item qcif
224176x144
225@item cif
226352x288
227@item 4cif
228704x576
229@item 16cif
2301408x1152
231@item qqvga
232160x120
233@item qvga
234320x240
235@item vga
236640x480
237@item svga
238800x600
239@item xga
2401024x768
241@item uxga
2421600x1200
243@item qxga
2442048x1536
245@item sxga
2461280x1024
247@item qsxga
2482560x2048
249@item hsxga
2505120x4096
251@item wvga
252852x480
253@item wxga
2541366x768
255@item wsxga
2561600x1024
257@item wuxga
2581920x1200
259@item woxga
2602560x1600
261@item wqsxga
2623200x2048
263@item wquxga
2643840x2400
265@item whsxga
2666400x4096
267@item whuxga
2687680x4800
269@item cga
270320x200
271@item ega
272640x350
273@item hd480
274852x480
275@item hd720
2761280x720
277@item hd1080
2781920x1080
279@end table
280
281@item -aspect @var{aspect}
282Set the video display aspect ratio specified by @var{aspect}.
283
284@var{aspect} can be a floating point number string, or a string of the
285form @var{num}:@var{den}, where @var{num} and @var{den} are the
286numerator and denominator of the aspect ratio. For example "4:3",
287"16:9", "1.3333", and "1.7777" are valid argument values.
288
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289@item -vn
290Disable video recording.
291@item -bt @var{tolerance}
292Set video bitrate tolerance (in bits, default 4000k).
293Has a minimum value of: (target_bitrate/target_framerate).
294In 1-pass mode, bitrate tolerance specifies how far ratecontrol is
295willing to deviate from the target average bitrate value. This is
296not related to min/max bitrate. Lowering tolerance too much has
297an adverse effect on quality.
298@item -maxrate @var{bitrate}
299Set max video bitrate (in bit/s).
300Requires -bufsize to be set.
301@item -minrate @var{bitrate}
302Set min video bitrate (in bit/s).
303Most useful in setting up a CBR encode:
304@example
305avconv -i myfile.avi -b 4000k -minrate 4000k -maxrate 4000k -bufsize 1835k out.m2v
306@end example
307It is of little use elsewise.
308@item -bufsize @var{size}
309Set video buffer verifier buffer size (in bits).
310@item -vcodec @var{codec}
92f1940e 311Set the video codec. This is an alias for @code{-codec:v}.
f4ad238c 312@item -same_quant
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313Use same quantizer as source (implies VBR).
314
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315Note that this is NOT SAME QUALITY. Do not use this option unless you know you
316need it.
317
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318@item -pass @var{n}
319Select the pass number (1 or 2). It is used to do two-pass
320video encoding. The statistics of the video are recorded in the first
321pass into a log file (see also the option -passlogfile),
322and in the second pass that log file is used to generate the video
323at the exact requested bitrate.
324On pass 1, you may just deactivate audio and set output to null,
325examples for Windows and Unix:
326@example
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327avconv -i foo.mov -c:v libxvid -pass 1 -an -f rawvideo -y NUL
328avconv -i foo.mov -c:v libxvid -pass 1 -an -f rawvideo -y /dev/null
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329@end example
330
331@item -passlogfile @var{prefix}
332Set two-pass log file name prefix to @var{prefix}, the default file name
333prefix is ``av2pass''. The complete file name will be
334@file{PREFIX-N.log}, where N is a number specific to the output
335stream.
336
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337@item -vlang @var{code}
338Set the ISO 639 language code (3 letters) of the current video stream.
339
340@item -vf @var{filter_graph}
341@var{filter_graph} is a description of the filter graph to apply to
342the input video.
343Use the option "-filters" to show all the available filters (including
344also sources and sinks).
345
346@end table
347
348@section Advanced Video Options
349
350@table @option
351@item -pix_fmt @var{format}
352Set pixel format. Use 'list' as parameter to show all the supported
353pixel formats.
354@item -sws_flags @var{flags}
355Set SwScaler flags.
356@item -g @var{gop_size}
357Set the group of pictures size.
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358@item -vdt @var{n}
359Discard threshold.
360@item -qscale @var{q}
361Use fixed video quantizer scale (VBR).
362@item -qmin @var{q}
363minimum video quantizer scale (VBR)
364@item -qmax @var{q}
365maximum video quantizer scale (VBR)
366@item -qdiff @var{q}
367maximum difference between the quantizer scales (VBR)
368@item -qblur @var{blur}
369video quantizer scale blur (VBR) (range 0.0 - 1.0)
370@item -qcomp @var{compression}
371video quantizer scale compression (VBR) (default 0.5).
372Constant of ratecontrol equation. Recommended range for default rc_eq: 0.0-1.0
373
374@item -lmin @var{lambda}
375minimum video lagrange factor (VBR)
376@item -lmax @var{lambda}
377max video lagrange factor (VBR)
378@item -mblmin @var{lambda}
379minimum macroblock quantizer scale (VBR)
380@item -mblmax @var{lambda}
381maximum macroblock quantizer scale (VBR)
382
383These four options (lmin, lmax, mblmin, mblmax) use 'lambda' units,
384but you may use the QP2LAMBDA constant to easily convert from 'q' units:
385@example
386avconv -i src.ext -lmax 21*QP2LAMBDA dst.ext
387@end example
388
389@item -rc_init_cplx @var{complexity}
390initial complexity for single pass encoding
391@item -b_qfactor @var{factor}
392qp factor between P- and B-frames
393@item -i_qfactor @var{factor}
394qp factor between P- and I-frames
395@item -b_qoffset @var{offset}
396qp offset between P- and B-frames
397@item -i_qoffset @var{offset}
398qp offset between P- and I-frames
399@item -rc_eq @var{equation}
400Set rate control equation (see section "Expression Evaluation")
401(default = @code{tex^qComp}).
402
403When computing the rate control equation expression, besides the
404standard functions defined in the section "Expression Evaluation", the
405following functions are available:
406@table @var
407@item bits2qp(bits)
408@item qp2bits(qp)
409@end table
410
411and the following constants are available:
412@table @var
413@item iTex
414@item pTex
415@item tex
416@item mv
417@item fCode
418@item iCount
419@item mcVar
420@item var
421@item isI
422@item isP
423@item isB
424@item avgQP
425@item qComp
426@item avgIITex
427@item avgPITex
428@item avgPPTex
429@item avgBPTex
430@item avgTex
431@end table
432
433@item -rc_override @var{override}
434rate control override for specific intervals
435@item -me_method @var{method}
436Set motion estimation method to @var{method}.
437Available methods are (from lowest to best quality):
438@table @samp
439@item zero
440Try just the (0, 0) vector.
441@item phods
442@item log
443@item x1
444@item hex
445@item umh
446@item epzs
447(default method)
448@item full
449exhaustive search (slow and marginally better than epzs)
450@end table
451
452@item -dct_algo @var{algo}
453Set DCT algorithm to @var{algo}. Available values are:
454@table @samp
455@item 0
456FF_DCT_AUTO (default)
457@item 1
458FF_DCT_FASTINT
459@item 2
460FF_DCT_INT
461@item 3
462FF_DCT_MMX
463@item 4
464FF_DCT_MLIB
465@item 5
466FF_DCT_ALTIVEC
467@end table
468
469@item -idct_algo @var{algo}
470Set IDCT algorithm to @var{algo}. Available values are:
471@table @samp
472@item 0
473FF_IDCT_AUTO (default)
474@item 1
475FF_IDCT_INT
476@item 2
477FF_IDCT_SIMPLE
478@item 3
479FF_IDCT_SIMPLEMMX
480@item 4
481FF_IDCT_LIBMPEG2MMX
482@item 5
483FF_IDCT_PS2
484@item 6
485FF_IDCT_MLIB
486@item 7
487FF_IDCT_ARM
488@item 8
489FF_IDCT_ALTIVEC
490@item 9
491FF_IDCT_SH4
492@item 10
493FF_IDCT_SIMPLEARM
494@end table
495
496@item -er @var{n}
497Set error resilience to @var{n}.
498@table @samp
499@item 1
500FF_ER_CAREFUL (default)
501@item 2
502FF_ER_COMPLIANT
503@item 3
504FF_ER_AGGRESSIVE
505@item 4
506FF_ER_VERY_AGGRESSIVE
507@end table
508
509@item -ec @var{bit_mask}
510Set error concealment to @var{bit_mask}. @var{bit_mask} is a bit mask of
511the following values:
512@table @samp
513@item 1
514FF_EC_GUESS_MVS (default = enabled)
515@item 2
516FF_EC_DEBLOCK (default = enabled)
517@end table
518
519@item -bf @var{frames}
520Use 'frames' B-frames (supported for MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4).
521@item -mbd @var{mode}
522macroblock decision
523@table @samp
524@item 0
525FF_MB_DECISION_SIMPLE: Use mb_cmp (cannot change it yet in avconv).
526@item 1
527FF_MB_DECISION_BITS: Choose the one which needs the fewest bits.
528@item 2
529FF_MB_DECISION_RD: rate distortion
530@end table
531
532@item -4mv
533Use four motion vector by macroblock (MPEG-4 only).
534@item -part
535Use data partitioning (MPEG-4 only).
536@item -bug @var{param}
537Work around encoder bugs that are not auto-detected.
538@item -strict @var{strictness}
539How strictly to follow the standards.
540@item -aic
541Enable Advanced intra coding (h263+).
542@item -umv
543Enable Unlimited Motion Vector (h263+)
544
545@item -deinterlace
546Deinterlace pictures.
547@item -ilme
548Force interlacing support in encoder (MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 only).
549Use this option if your input file is interlaced and you want
550to keep the interlaced format for minimum losses.
551The alternative is to deinterlace the input stream with
552@option{-deinterlace}, but deinterlacing introduces losses.
553@item -psnr
554Calculate PSNR of compressed frames.
555@item -vstats
556Dump video coding statistics to @file{vstats_HHMMSS.log}.
557@item -vstats_file @var{file}
558Dump video coding statistics to @var{file}.
559@item -top @var{n}
560top=1/bottom=0/auto=-1 field first
561@item -dc @var{precision}
562Intra_dc_precision.
563@item -vtag @var{fourcc/tag}
564Force video tag/fourcc.
565@item -qphist
566Show QP histogram.
567@item -vbsf @var{bitstream_filter}
568Bitstream filters available are "dump_extra", "remove_extra", "noise", "h264_mp4toannexb", "imxdump", "mjpegadump", "mjpeg2jpeg".
569@example
92f1940e 570avconv -i h264.mp4 -c:v copy -vbsf h264_mp4toannexb -an out.h264
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571@end example
572@item -force_key_frames @var{time}[,@var{time}...]
573Force key frames at the specified timestamps, more precisely at the first
574frames after each specified time.
575This option can be useful to ensure that a seek point is present at a
576chapter mark or any other designated place in the output file.
577The timestamps must be specified in ascending order.
578@end table
579
580@section Audio Options
581
582@table @option
583@item -aframes @var{number}
584Set the number of audio frames to record.
585@item -ar @var{freq}
586Set the audio sampling frequency. For output streams it is set by
587default to the frequency of the corresponding input stream. For input
588streams this option only makes sense for audio grabbing devices and raw
589demuxers and is mapped to the corresponding demuxer options.
590@item -aq @var{q}
591Set the audio quality (codec-specific, VBR).
592@item -ac @var{channels}
593Set the number of audio channels. For output streams it is set by
594default to the number of input audio channels. For input streams
595this option only makes sense for audio grabbing devices and raw demuxers
596and is mapped to the corresponding demuxer options.
597@item -an
598Disable audio recording.
599@item -acodec @var{codec}
92f1940e 600Set the audio codec. This is an alias for @code{-codec:a}.
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601@item -alang @var{code}
602Set the ISO 639 language code (3 letters) of the current audio stream.
603@end table
604
605@section Advanced Audio options:
606
607@table @option
608@item -atag @var{fourcc/tag}
609Force audio tag/fourcc.
610@item -audio_service_type @var{type}
611Set the type of service that the audio stream contains.
612@table @option
613@item ma
614Main Audio Service (default)
615@item ef
616Effects
617@item vi
618Visually Impaired
619@item hi
620Hearing Impaired
621@item di
622Dialogue
623@item co
624Commentary
625@item em
626Emergency
627@item vo
628Voice Over
629@item ka
630Karaoke
631@end table
632@item -absf @var{bitstream_filter}
633Bitstream filters available are "dump_extra", "remove_extra", "noise", "mp3comp", "mp3decomp".
634@end table
635
636@section Subtitle options:
637
638@table @option
639@item -scodec @var{codec}
92f1940e 640Set the subtitle codec. This is an alias for @code{-codec:s}.
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641@item -slang @var{code}
642Set the ISO 639 language code (3 letters) of the current subtitle stream.
643@item -sn
644Disable subtitle recording.
645@item -sbsf @var{bitstream_filter}
646Bitstream filters available are "mov2textsub", "text2movsub".
647@example
92f1940e 648avconv -i file.mov -an -vn -sbsf mov2textsub -c:s copy -f rawvideo sub.txt
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649@end example
650@end table
651
652@section Audio/Video grab options
653
654@table @option
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655@item -isync
656Synchronize read on input.
657@end table
658
659@section Advanced options
660
661@table @option
8d2e4a7e 662@item -map [-]@var{input_file_id}[:@var{input_stream_type}][:@var{input_stream_id}][,@var{sync_file_id}[:@var{sync_stream_type}][:@var{sync_stream_id}]]
6291d7e4 663
8d2e4a7e 664Designate one or more input streams as a source for the output file. Each input
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665stream is identified by the input file index @var{input_file_id} and
666the input stream index @var{input_stream_id} within the input
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667file. Both indices start at 0. If specified,
668@var{sync_file_id}:@var{sync_stream_id} sets which input stream
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669is used as a presentation sync reference.
670
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671If @var{input_stream_type} is specified -- 'v' for video, 'a' for audio, 's' for
672subtitle and 'd' for data -- then @var{input_stream_id} counts only the streams
673of this type. Same for @var{sync_stream_type}.
674
675@var{input_stream_id} may be omitted, in which case all streams of the given
676type are mapped (or all streams in the file, if no type is specified).
677
3d4f0dab 678The first @code{-map} option on the command line specifies the
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679source for output stream 0, the second @code{-map} option specifies
680the source for output stream 1, etc.
681
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682A @code{-} character before the stream identifier creates a "negative" mapping.
683It disables matching streams from already created mappings.
684
685For example, to map ALL streams from the first input file to output
686@example
f5bae2c6 687avconv -i INPUT -map 0 output
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688@end example
689
6291d7e4 690For example, if you have two audio streams in the first input file,
8d2e4a7e 691these streams are identified by "0:0" and "0:1". You can use
3d4f0dab 692@code{-map} to select which streams to place in an output file. For
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693example:
694@example
8d2e4a7e 695avconv -i INPUT -map 0:1 out.wav
6291d7e4 696@end example
8d2e4a7e 697will map the input stream in @file{INPUT} identified by "0:1" to
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698the (single) output stream in @file{out.wav}.
699
700For example, to select the stream with index 2 from input file
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701@file{a.mov} (specified by the identifier "0:2"), and stream with
702index 6 from input @file{b.mov} (specified by the identifier "1:6"),
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703and copy them to the output file @file{out.mov}:
704@example
92f1940e 705avconv -i a.mov -i b.mov -c copy -map 0:2 -map 1:6 out.mov
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706@end example
707
708To select all video and the third audio stream from an input file:
709@example
710avconv -i INPUT -map 0:v -map 0:a:2 OUTPUT
711@end example
712
713To map all the streams except the second audio, use negative mappings
714@example
715avconv -i INPUT -map 0 -map -0:a:1 OUTPUT
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716@end example
717
3d4f0dab 718Note that using this option disables the default mappings for this output file.
6291d7e4 719
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720@item -map_metadata[:@var{metadata_type}][:@var{index}] @var{infile}[:@var{metadata_type}][:@var{index}]
721Set metadata information of the next output file from @var{infile}. Note that
722those are file indices (zero-based), not filenames.
723Optional @var{metadata_type} parameters specify, which metadata to copy - (g)lobal
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724(i.e. metadata that applies to the whole file), per-(s)tream, per-(c)hapter or
725per-(p)rogram. All metadata specifiers other than global must be followed by the
e6e6060c 726stream/chapter/program index. If metadata specifier is omitted, it defaults to
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727global.
728
e6e6060c 729By default, global metadata is copied from the first input file,
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730per-stream and per-chapter metadata is copied along with streams/chapters. These
731default mappings are disabled by creating any mapping of the relevant type. A negative
732file index can be used to create a dummy mapping that just disables automatic copying.
733
734For example to copy metadata from the first stream of the input file to global metadata
735of the output file:
736@example
e6e6060c 737avconv -i in.ogg -map_metadata 0:s:0 out.mp3
6291d7e4 738@end example
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739@item -map_chapters @var{input_file_index}
740Copy chapters from input file with index @var{input_file_index} to the next
741output file. If no chapter mapping is specified, then chapters are copied from
742the first input file with at least one chapter. Use a negative file index to
743disable any chapter copying.
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744@item -debug
745Print specific debug info.
746@item -benchmark
747Show benchmarking information at the end of an encode.
748Shows CPU time used and maximum memory consumption.
749Maximum memory consumption is not supported on all systems,
750it will usually display as 0 if not supported.
751@item -dump
752Dump each input packet.
753@item -hex
754When dumping packets, also dump the payload.
755@item -bitexact
756Only use bit exact algorithms (for codec testing).
757@item -ps @var{size}
758Set RTP payload size in bytes.
759@item -re
760Read input at native frame rate. Mainly used to simulate a grab device.
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761@item -threads @var{count}
762Thread count.
763@item -vsync @var{parameter}
764Video sync method.
765
766@table @option
767@item 0
768Each frame is passed with its timestamp from the demuxer to the muxer.
769@item 1
770Frames will be duplicated and dropped to achieve exactly the requested
771constant framerate.
772@item 2
773Frames are passed through with their timestamp or dropped so as to
774prevent 2 frames from having the same timestamp.
775@item -1
776Chooses between 1 and 2 depending on muxer capabilities. This is the
777default method.
778@end table
779
780With -map you can select from which stream the timestamps should be
781taken. You can leave either video or audio unchanged and sync the
782remaining stream(s) to the unchanged one.
783
784@item -async @var{samples_per_second}
785Audio sync method. "Stretches/squeezes" the audio stream to match the timestamps,
786the parameter is the maximum samples per second by which the audio is changed.
787-async 1 is a special case where only the start of the audio stream is corrected
788without any later correction.
789@item -copyts
790Copy timestamps from input to output.
791@item -copytb
792Copy input stream time base from input to output when stream copying.
793@item -shortest
794Finish encoding when the shortest input stream ends.
795@item -dts_delta_threshold
796Timestamp discontinuity delta threshold.
797@item -muxdelay @var{seconds}
798Set the maximum demux-decode delay.
799@item -muxpreload @var{seconds}
800Set the initial demux-decode delay.
801@item -streamid @var{output-stream-index}:@var{new-value}
802Assign a new stream-id value to an output stream. This option should be
803specified prior to the output filename to which it applies.
804For the situation where multiple output files exist, a streamid
805may be reassigned to a different value.
806
807For example, to set the stream 0 PID to 33 and the stream 1 PID to 36 for
808an output mpegts file:
809@example
810avconv -i infile -streamid 0:33 -streamid 1:36 out.ts
811@end example
812@end table
7478ab5a 813@c man end OPTIONS
6291d7e4 814
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815@chapter Tips
816@c man begin TIPS
817
818@itemize
819@item
820For streaming at very low bitrate application, use a low frame rate
821and a small GOP size. This is especially true for RealVideo where
822the Linux player does not seem to be very fast, so it can miss
823frames. An example is:
824
825@example
826avconv -g 3 -r 3 -t 10 -b 50k -s qcif -f rv10 /tmp/b.rm
827@end example
828
829@item
830The parameter 'q' which is displayed while encoding is the current
831quantizer. The value 1 indicates that a very good quality could
832be achieved. The value 31 indicates the worst quality. If q=31 appears
833too often, it means that the encoder cannot compress enough to meet
834your bitrate. You must either increase the bitrate, decrease the
835frame rate or decrease the frame size.
836
837@item
838If your computer is not fast enough, you can speed up the
839compression at the expense of the compression ratio. You can use
840'-me zero' to speed up motion estimation, and '-intra' to disable
841motion estimation completely (you have only I-frames, which means it
842is about as good as JPEG compression).
843
844@item
845To have very low audio bitrates, reduce the sampling frequency
846(down to 22050 Hz for MPEG audio, 22050 or 11025 for AC-3).
847
848@item
849To have a constant quality (but a variable bitrate), use the option
850'-qscale n' when 'n' is between 1 (excellent quality) and 31 (worst
851quality).
852
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853@end itemize
854@c man end TIPS
855
856@chapter Examples
857@c man begin EXAMPLES
858
859@section Video and Audio grabbing
860
861If you specify the input format and device then avconv can grab video
862and audio directly.
863
864@example
865avconv -f oss -i /dev/dsp -f video4linux2 -i /dev/video0 /tmp/out.mpg
866@end example
867
868Note that you must activate the right video source and channel before
869launching avconv with any TV viewer such as
870@uref{http://linux.bytesex.org/xawtv/, xawtv} by Gerd Knorr. You also
871have to set the audio recording levels correctly with a
872standard mixer.
873
874@section X11 grabbing
875
876Grab the X11 display with avconv via
877
878@example
879avconv -f x11grab -s cif -r 25 -i :0.0 /tmp/out.mpg
880@end example
881
8820.0 is display.screen number of your X11 server, same as
883the DISPLAY environment variable.
884
885@example
886avconv -f x11grab -s cif -r 25 -i :0.0+10,20 /tmp/out.mpg
887@end example
888
8890.0 is display.screen number of your X11 server, same as the DISPLAY environment
890variable. 10 is the x-offset and 20 the y-offset for the grabbing.
891
892@section Video and Audio file format conversion
893
894Any supported file format and protocol can serve as input to avconv:
895
896Examples:
897@itemize
898@item
899You can use YUV files as input:
900
901@example
902avconv -i /tmp/test%d.Y /tmp/out.mpg
903@end example
904
905It will use the files:
906@example
907/tmp/test0.Y, /tmp/test0.U, /tmp/test0.V,
908/tmp/test1.Y, /tmp/test1.U, /tmp/test1.V, etc...
909@end example
910
911The Y files use twice the resolution of the U and V files. They are
912raw files, without header. They can be generated by all decent video
913decoders. You must specify the size of the image with the @option{-s} option
914if avconv cannot guess it.
915
916@item
917You can input from a raw YUV420P file:
918
919@example
920avconv -i /tmp/test.yuv /tmp/out.avi
921@end example
922
923test.yuv is a file containing raw YUV planar data. Each frame is composed
924of the Y plane followed by the U and V planes at half vertical and
925horizontal resolution.
926
927@item
928You can output to a raw YUV420P file:
929
930@example
931avconv -i mydivx.avi hugefile.yuv
932@end example
933
934@item
935You can set several input files and output files:
936
937@example
938avconv -i /tmp/a.wav -s 640x480 -i /tmp/a.yuv /tmp/a.mpg
939@end example
940
941Converts the audio file a.wav and the raw YUV video file a.yuv
942to MPEG file a.mpg.
943
944@item
945You can also do audio and video conversions at the same time:
946
947@example
948avconv -i /tmp/a.wav -ar 22050 /tmp/a.mp2
949@end example
950
951Converts a.wav to MPEG audio at 22050 Hz sample rate.
952
953@item
954You can encode to several formats at the same time and define a
955mapping from input stream to output streams:
956
957@example
64db1a82 958avconv -i /tmp/a.wav -map 0:a -b 64k /tmp/a.mp2 -map 0:a -b 128k /tmp/b.mp2
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959@end example
960
961Converts a.wav to a.mp2 at 64 kbits and to b.mp2 at 128 kbits. '-map
962file:index' specifies which input stream is used for each output
963stream, in the order of the definition of output streams.
964
965@item
966You can transcode decrypted VOBs:
967
968@example
64db1a82 969avconv -i snatch_1.vob -f avi -c:v mpeg4 -b:v 800k -g 300 -bf 2 -c:a libmp3lame -b:a 128k snatch.avi
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970@end example
971
972This is a typical DVD ripping example; the input is a VOB file, the
973output an AVI file with MPEG-4 video and MP3 audio. Note that in this
974command we use B-frames so the MPEG-4 stream is DivX5 compatible, and
975GOP size is 300 which means one intra frame every 10 seconds for 29.97fps
976input video. Furthermore, the audio stream is MP3-encoded so you need
977to enable LAME support by passing @code{--enable-libmp3lame} to configure.
978The mapping is particularly useful for DVD transcoding
979to get the desired audio language.
980
981NOTE: To see the supported input formats, use @code{avconv -formats}.
982
983@item
984You can extract images from a video, or create a video from many images:
985
986For extracting images from a video:
987@example
988avconv -i foo.avi -r 1 -s WxH -f image2 foo-%03d.jpeg
989@end example
990
991This will extract one video frame per second from the video and will
992output them in files named @file{foo-001.jpeg}, @file{foo-002.jpeg},
993etc. Images will be rescaled to fit the new WxH values.
994
995If you want to extract just a limited number of frames, you can use the
996above command in combination with the -vframes or -t option, or in
997combination with -ss to start extracting from a certain point in time.
998
999For creating a video from many images:
1000@example
1001avconv -f image2 -i foo-%03d.jpeg -r 12 -s WxH foo.avi
1002@end example
1003
1004The syntax @code{foo-%03d.jpeg} specifies to use a decimal number
1005composed of three digits padded with zeroes to express the sequence
1006number. It is the same syntax supported by the C printf function, but
1007only formats accepting a normal integer are suitable.
1008
1009@item
1010You can put many streams of the same type in the output:
1011
1012@example
92f1940e 1013avconv -i test1.avi -i test2.avi -map 0.3 -map 0.2 -map 0.1 -map 0.0 -c copy test12.nut
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1014@end example
1015
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1016The resulting output file @file{test12.avi} will contain first four streams from
1017the input file in reverse order.
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1018
1019@end itemize
1020@c man end EXAMPLES
1021
1022@include eval.texi
1023@include encoders.texi
1024@include demuxers.texi
1025@include muxers.texi
1026@include indevs.texi
1027@include outdevs.texi
1028@include protocols.texi
1029@include bitstream_filters.texi
1030@include filters.texi
1031@include metadata.texi
1032
1033@ignore
1034
1035@setfilename avconv
1036@settitle avconv video converter
1037
1038@c man begin SEEALSO
1039avplay(1), avprobe(1), avserver(1) and the Libav HTML documentation
1040@c man end
1041
1042@c man begin AUTHORS
1043The Libav developers
1044@c man end
1045
1046@end ignore
1047
1048@bye