build: Rename OBJDIRS variable to OUTDIRS
[libav.git] / doc / git-howto.txt
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2About Git write access:
3~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
4
5Before everything else, you should know how to use GIT properly.
6Luckily Git comes with excellent documentation.
7
8 git --help
9 man git
10
11shows you the available subcommands,
12
13 git <command> --help
14 man git-<command>
15
16shows information about the subcommand <command>.
17
18The most comprehensive manual is the website Git Reference
19
20http://gitref.org/
21
22For more information about the Git project, visit
23
24http://git-scm.com/
25
26Consult these resources whenever you have problems, they are quite exhaustive.
27
28You do not need a special username or password.
29All you need is to provide a ssh public key to the Git server admin.
30
f8a45fa1 31What follows now is a basic introduction to Git and some Libav-specific
df17f6d5 32guidelines. Read it at least once, if you are granted commit privileges to the
f8a45fa1 33Libav project you are expected to be familiar with these rules.
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35
36
37I. BASICS:
38==========
39
400. Get GIT:
41
42 You can get git from http://git-scm.com/
43
44
451. Cloning the source tree:
46
21de9204 47 git clone git://git.libav.org/libav.git <target>
df17f6d5 48
f8a45fa1 49 This will put the Libav sources into the directory <target>.
df17f6d5 50
21de9204 51 git clone git@git.libav.org:libav.git <target>
df17f6d5 52
f8a45fa1 53 This will put the Libav sources into the directory <target> and let
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54 you push back your changes to the remote repository.
55
56
572. Updating the source tree to the latest revision:
58
ffe9fd25 59 git pull (--ff-only)
df17f6d5 60
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61 pulls in the latest changes from the tracked branch. The tracked branch
62 can be remote. By default the master branch tracks the branch master in
63 the remote origin.
64 Caveat: Since merge commits are forbidden at least for the initial
65 months of git --ff-only or --rebase (see below) are recommended.
66 --ff-only will fail and not create merge commits if your branch
67 has diverged (has a different history) from the tracked branch.
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692.a Rebasing your local branches:
70
71 git pull --rebase
72
73 fetches the changes from the main repository and replays your local commits
ffe9fd25 74 over it. This is required to keep all your local changes at the top of
f8a45fa1 75 Libav's master tree. The master tree will reject pushes with merge commits.
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77
783. Adding/removing files/directories:
79
80 git add [-A] <filename/dirname>
81 git rm [-r] <filename/dirname>
82
83 GIT needs to get notified of all changes you make to your working
84 directory that makes files appear or disappear.
85 Line moves across files are automatically tracked.
86
87
884. Showing modifications:
89
90 git diff <filename(s)>
91
92 will show all local modifications in your working directory as unified diff.
93
94
955. Inspecting the changelog:
96
97 git log <filename(s)>
98
99 You may also use the graphical tools like gitview or gitk or the web
21de9204 100 interface available at http://git.libav.org/
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1026. Checking source tree status:
103
104 git status
105
106 detects all the changes you made and lists what actions will be taken in case
107 of a commit (additions, modifications, deletions, etc.).
108
109
1107. Committing:
111
112 git diff --check
113
5fbf2b3f 114 to double check your changes before committing them to avoid trouble later
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115 on. All experienced developers do this on each and every commit, no matter
116 how small.
117 Every one of them has been saved from looking like a fool by this many times.
118 It's very easy for stray debug output or cosmetic modifications to slip in,
119 please avoid problems through this extra level of scrutiny.
120
121 For cosmetics-only commits you should get (almost) empty output from
122
cbfa93ac 123 git diff -w -b <filename(s)>
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125 Also check the output of
126
127 git status
128
129 to make sure you don't have untracked files or deletions.
130
131 git add [-i|-p|-A] <filenames/dirnames>
132
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133 Make sure you have told git your name and email address, e.g. by running
134 git config --global user.name "My Name"
135 git config --global user.email my@email.invalid
136 (--global to set the global configuration for all your git checkouts).
137
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138 Git will select the changes to the files for commit. Optionally you can use
139 the interactive or the patch mode to select hunk by hunk what should be
140 added to the commit.
141
142 git commit
143
144 Git will commit the selected changes to your current local branch.
145
146 You will be prompted for a log message in an editor, which is either
5fbf2b3f 147 set in your personal configuration file through
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149 git config core.editor
150
151 or set by one of the following environment variables:
152 GIT_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR.
153
154 Log messages should be concise but descriptive. Explain why you made a change,
155 what you did will be obvious from the changes themselves most of the time.
156 Saying just "bug fix" or "10l" is bad. Remember that people of varying skill
157 levels look at and educate themselves while reading through your code. Don't
158 include filenames in log messages, Git provides that information.
159
160 Possibly make the commit message have a terse, descriptive first line, an
161 empty line and then a full description. The first line will be used to name
162 the patch by git format-patch.
163
164
1658. Renaming/moving/copying files or contents of files:
166
167 Git automatically tracks such changes, making those normal commits.
168
169 mv/cp path/file otherpath/otherfile
170
171 git add [-A] .
172
173 git commit
174
175 Do not move, rename or copy files of which you are not the maintainer without
176 discussing it on the mailing list first!
177
1789. Reverting broken commits
179
180 git revert <commit>
181
182 git revert will generate a revert commit. This will not make the faulty
183 commit disappear from the history.
184
185 git reset <commit>
186
187 git reset will uncommit the changes till <commit> rewriting the current
188 branch history.
189
190 git commit --amend
191
192 allows to amend the last commit details quickly.
193
194 git rebase -i origin/master
195
196 will replay local commits over the main repository allowing to edit,
197 merge or remove some of them in the process.
198
199 Note that the reset, commit --amend and rebase rewrite history, so you
200 should use them ONLY on your local or topic branches.
201
202 The main repository will reject those changes.
203
20410. Preparing a patchset.
205
206 git format-patch <commit> [-o directory]
207
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208 will generate a set of patches for each commit between <commit> and
209 current HEAD. E.g.
210
211 git format-patch origin/master
212
213 will generate patches for all commits on current branch which are not
214 present in upstream.
215 A useful shortcut is also
216
217 git format-patch -n
218
219 which will generate patches from last n commits.
220 By default the patches are created in the current directory.
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22211. Sending patches for review
223
224 git send-email <commit list|directory>
225
226 will send the patches created by git format-patch or directly generates
227 them. All the email fields can be configured in the global/local
228 configuration or overridden by command line.
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229 Note that this tool must often be installed separately (e.g. git-email
230 package on Debian-based distros).
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231
23212. Pushing changes to remote trees
233
234 git push
235
236 Will push the changes to the default remote (origin).
237 Git will prevent you from pushing changes if the local and remote trees are
238 out of sync. Refer to 2 and 2.a to sync the local tree.
239
240 git remote add <name> <url>
241
242 Will add additional remote with a name reference, it is useful if you want
243 to push your local branch for review on a remote host.
244
245 git push <remote> <refspec>
246
247 Will push the changes to the remote repository. Omitting refspec makes git
248 push update all the remote branches matching the local ones.
249
adb8669c 25013. Finding a specific svn revision
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252 Since version 1.7.1 git supports ':/foo' syntax for specifying commits
253 based on a regular expression. see man gitrevisions
254
255 git show :/'as revision 23456'
256
257 will show the svn changeset r23456. With older git versions searching in
258 the git log output is the easiest option (especially if a pager with
259 search capabilities is used).
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260 This commit can be checked out with
261
262 git checkout -b svn_23456 :/'as revision 23456'
263
264 or for git < 1.7.1 with
265
266 git checkout -b svn_23456 $SHA1
267
268 where $SHA1 is the commit SHA1 from the 'git log' output.
269
30876e39 270
21de9204 271Contact the project admins <git at libav dot org> if you have technical
df17f6d5 272problems with the GIT server.