improve broken shell detection, and give a better error message
[libav.git] / output_example.c
CommitLineData
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1/*
2 * Libavformat API example: Output a media file in any supported
3 * libavformat format. The default codecs are used.
115329f1 4 *
8de65d4f 5 * Copyright (c) 2003 Fabrice Bellard
115329f1 6 *
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7 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
8 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
9 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
10 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
11 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
12 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
115329f1 13 *
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14 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
15 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
115329f1 16 *
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17 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
18 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
19 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
20 * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
21 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
22 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
115329f1 23 * THE SOFTWARE.
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24 */
25#include <stdlib.h>
26#include <stdio.h>
af547ce5 27#include <string.h>
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28#include <math.h>
29
264cb2b8
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30#ifndef M_PI
31#define M_PI 3.1415926535897931
32#endif
33
8de65d4f 34#include "avformat.h"
03ae87a3 35#include "swscale.h"
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36
37/* 5 seconds stream duration */
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38#define STREAM_DURATION 5.0
39#define STREAM_FRAME_RATE 25 /* 25 images/s */
40#define STREAM_NB_FRAMES ((int)(STREAM_DURATION * STREAM_FRAME_RATE))
002c01a6 41#define STREAM_PIX_FMT PIX_FMT_YUV420P /* default pix_fmt */
8de65d4f 42
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43static int sws_flags = SWS_BICUBIC;
44
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45/**************************************************************/
46/* audio output */
47
e70fcf07 48float t, tincr, tincr2;
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49int16_t *samples;
50uint8_t *audio_outbuf;
51int audio_outbuf_size;
52int audio_input_frame_size;
53
115329f1 54/*
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55 * add an audio output stream
56 */
ceaf1909 57static AVStream *add_audio_stream(AVFormatContext *oc, int codec_id)
8de65d4f 58{
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59 AVCodecContext *c;
60 AVStream *st;
61
62 st = av_new_stream(oc, 1);
63 if (!st) {
64 fprintf(stderr, "Could not alloc stream\n");
65 exit(1);
66 }
67
01f4895c 68 c = st->codec;
e70fcf07 69 c->codec_id = codec_id;
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70 c->codec_type = CODEC_TYPE_AUDIO;
71
72 /* put sample parameters */
73 c->bit_rate = 64000;
74 c->sample_rate = 44100;
75 c->channels = 2;
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76 return st;
77}
78
ceaf1909 79static void open_audio(AVFormatContext *oc, AVStream *st)
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80{
81 AVCodecContext *c;
82 AVCodec *codec;
83
01f4895c 84 c = st->codec;
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85
86 /* find the audio encoder */
87 codec = avcodec_find_encoder(c->codec_id);
88 if (!codec) {
89 fprintf(stderr, "codec not found\n");
90 exit(1);
91 }
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92
93 /* open it */
94 if (avcodec_open(c, codec) < 0) {
95 fprintf(stderr, "could not open codec\n");
96 exit(1);
97 }
98
99 /* init signal generator */
100 t = 0;
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101 tincr = 2 * M_PI * 110.0 / c->sample_rate;
102 /* increment frequency by 110 Hz per second */
103 tincr2 = 2 * M_PI * 110.0 / c->sample_rate / c->sample_rate;
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104
105 audio_outbuf_size = 10000;
5d915e82 106 audio_outbuf = av_malloc(audio_outbuf_size);
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107
108 /* ugly hack for PCM codecs (will be removed ASAP with new PCM
109 support to compute the input frame size in samples */
110 if (c->frame_size <= 1) {
111 audio_input_frame_size = audio_outbuf_size / c->channels;
01f4895c 112 switch(st->codec->codec_id) {
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113 case CODEC_ID_PCM_S16LE:
114 case CODEC_ID_PCM_S16BE:
115 case CODEC_ID_PCM_U16LE:
116 case CODEC_ID_PCM_U16BE:
117 audio_input_frame_size >>= 1;
118 break;
119 default:
120 break;
121 }
122 } else {
123 audio_input_frame_size = c->frame_size;
124 }
5d915e82 125 samples = av_malloc(audio_input_frame_size * 2 * c->channels);
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126}
127
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128/* prepare a 16 bit dummy audio frame of 'frame_size' samples and
129 'nb_channels' channels */
ceaf1909 130static void get_audio_frame(int16_t *samples, int frame_size, int nb_channels)
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131{
132 int j, i, v;
133 int16_t *q;
134
135 q = samples;
136 for(j=0;j<frame_size;j++) {
137 v = (int)(sin(t) * 10000);
138 for(i = 0; i < nb_channels; i++)
139 *q++ = v;
140 t += tincr;
141 tincr += tincr2;
142 }
143}
144
ceaf1909 145static void write_audio_frame(AVFormatContext *oc, AVStream *st)
8de65d4f 146{
8de65d4f 147 AVCodecContext *c;
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148 AVPacket pkt;
149 av_init_packet(&pkt);
115329f1 150
01f4895c 151 c = st->codec;
8de65d4f 152
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153 get_audio_frame(samples, audio_input_frame_size, c->channels);
154
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155 pkt.size= avcodec_encode_audio(c, audio_outbuf, audio_outbuf_size, samples);
156
002c01a6 157 pkt.pts= av_rescale_q(c->coded_frame->pts, c->time_base, st->time_base);
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158 pkt.flags |= PKT_FLAG_KEY;
159 pkt.stream_index= st->index;
160 pkt.data= audio_outbuf;
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161
162 /* write the compressed frame in the media file */
e928649b 163 if (av_write_frame(oc, &pkt) != 0) {
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164 fprintf(stderr, "Error while writing audio frame\n");
165 exit(1);
166 }
167}
168
ceaf1909 169static void close_audio(AVFormatContext *oc, AVStream *st)
e70fcf07 170{
01f4895c 171 avcodec_close(st->codec);
115329f1 172
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173 av_free(samples);
174 av_free(audio_outbuf);
175}
176
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177/**************************************************************/
178/* video output */
179
e70fcf07 180AVFrame *picture, *tmp_picture;
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181uint8_t *video_outbuf;
182int frame_count, video_outbuf_size;
183
184/* add a video output stream */
ceaf1909 185static AVStream *add_video_stream(AVFormatContext *oc, int codec_id)
8de65d4f 186{
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187 AVCodecContext *c;
188 AVStream *st;
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189
190 st = av_new_stream(oc, 0);
191 if (!st) {
192 fprintf(stderr, "Could not alloc stream\n");
193 exit(1);
194 }
115329f1 195
01f4895c 196 c = st->codec;
e70fcf07 197 c->codec_id = codec_id;
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198 c->codec_type = CODEC_TYPE_VIDEO;
199
200 /* put sample parameters */
201 c->bit_rate = 400000;
202 /* resolution must be a multiple of two */
115329f1 203 c->width = 352;
8de65d4f 204 c->height = 288;
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205 /* time base: this is the fundamental unit of time (in seconds) in terms
206 of which frame timestamps are represented. for fixed-fps content,
207 timebase should be 1/framerate and timestamp increments should be
208 identically 1. */
115329f1 209 c->time_base.den = STREAM_FRAME_RATE;
c0df9d75 210 c->time_base.num = 1;
cb0c448a 211 c->gop_size = 12; /* emit one intra frame every twelve frames at most */
002c01a6 212 c->pix_fmt = STREAM_PIX_FMT;
85e33747 213 if (c->codec_id == CODEC_ID_MPEG2VIDEO) {
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214 /* just for testing, we also add B frames */
215 c->max_b_frames = 2;
216 }
85e33747 217 if (c->codec_id == CODEC_ID_MPEG1VIDEO){
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218 /* needed to avoid using macroblocks in which some coeffs overflow
219 this doesnt happen with normal video, it just happens here as the
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220 motion of the chroma plane doesnt match the luma plane */
221 c->mb_decision=2;
222 }
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223 // some formats want stream headers to be seperate
224 if(!strcmp(oc->oformat->name, "mp4") || !strcmp(oc->oformat->name, "mov") || !strcmp(oc->oformat->name, "3gp"))
225 c->flags |= CODEC_FLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;
115329f1 226
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227 return st;
228}
229
ceaf1909 230static AVFrame *alloc_picture(int pix_fmt, int width, int height)
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231{
232 AVFrame *picture;
233 uint8_t *picture_buf;
234 int size;
115329f1 235
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236 picture = avcodec_alloc_frame();
237 if (!picture)
238 return NULL;
239 size = avpicture_get_size(pix_fmt, width, height);
5d915e82 240 picture_buf = av_malloc(size);
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241 if (!picture_buf) {
242 av_free(picture);
243 return NULL;
244 }
115329f1 245 avpicture_fill((AVPicture *)picture, picture_buf,
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246 pix_fmt, width, height);
247 return picture;
248}
115329f1 249
ceaf1909 250static void open_video(AVFormatContext *oc, AVStream *st)
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251{
252 AVCodec *codec;
253 AVCodecContext *c;
254
01f4895c 255 c = st->codec;
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256
257 /* find the video encoder */
258 codec = avcodec_find_encoder(c->codec_id);
259 if (!codec) {
260 fprintf(stderr, "codec not found\n");
261 exit(1);
262 }
263
264 /* open the codec */
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265 if (avcodec_open(c, codec) < 0) {
266 fprintf(stderr, "could not open codec\n");
267 exit(1);
268 }
269
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270 video_outbuf = NULL;
271 if (!(oc->oformat->flags & AVFMT_RAWPICTURE)) {
272 /* allocate output buffer */
273 /* XXX: API change will be done */
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274 /* buffers passed into lav* can be allocated any way you prefer,
275 as long as they're aligned enough for the architecture, and
276 they're freed appropriately (such as using av_free for buffers
277 allocated with av_malloc) */
e70fcf07 278 video_outbuf_size = 200000;
5d915e82 279 video_outbuf = av_malloc(video_outbuf_size);
e70fcf07 280 }
8de65d4f 281
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282 /* allocate the encoded raw picture */
283 picture = alloc_picture(c->pix_fmt, c->width, c->height);
284 if (!picture) {
285 fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate picture\n");
286 exit(1);
287 }
8de65d4f 288
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289 /* if the output format is not YUV420P, then a temporary YUV420P
290 picture is needed too. It is then converted to the required
291 output format */
292 tmp_picture = NULL;
293 if (c->pix_fmt != PIX_FMT_YUV420P) {
294 tmp_picture = alloc_picture(PIX_FMT_YUV420P, c->width, c->height);
295 if (!tmp_picture) {
296 fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate temporary picture\n");
297 exit(1);
298 }
299 }
300}
8de65d4f 301
e70fcf07 302/* prepare a dummy image */
ceaf1909 303static void fill_yuv_image(AVFrame *pict, int frame_index, int width, int height)
8de65d4f 304{
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305 int x, y, i;
306
307 i = frame_index;
8de65d4f 308
8de65d4f 309 /* Y */
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310 for(y=0;y<height;y++) {
311 for(x=0;x<width;x++) {
312 pict->data[0][y * pict->linesize[0] + x] = x + y + i * 3;
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313 }
314 }
115329f1 315
8de65d4f 316 /* Cb and Cr */
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317 for(y=0;y<height/2;y++) {
318 for(x=0;x<width/2;x++) {
319 pict->data[1][y * pict->linesize[1] + x] = 128 + y + i * 2;
320 pict->data[2][y * pict->linesize[2] + x] = 64 + x + i * 5;
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321 }
322 }
e70fcf07 323}
8de65d4f 324
ceaf1909 325static void write_video_frame(AVFormatContext *oc, AVStream *st)
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326{
327 int out_size, ret;
328 AVCodecContext *c;
03ae87a3 329 static struct SwsContext *img_convert_ctx;
115329f1 330
01f4895c 331 c = st->codec;
115329f1 332
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333 if (frame_count >= STREAM_NB_FRAMES) {
334 /* no more frame to compress. The codec has a latency of a few
335 frames if using B frames, so we get the last frames by
002c01a6 336 passing the same picture again */
e70fcf07 337 } else {
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338 if (c->pix_fmt != PIX_FMT_YUV420P) {
339 /* as we only generate a YUV420P picture, we must convert it
340 to the codec pixel format if needed */
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341 if (img_convert_ctx == NULL) {
342 img_convert_ctx = sws_getContext(c->width, c->height,
343 PIX_FMT_YUV420P,
344 c->width, c->height,
345 c->pix_fmt,
346 sws_flags, NULL, NULL, NULL);
347 if (img_convert_ctx == NULL) {
348 fprintf(stderr, "Cannot initialize the conversion context\n");
349 exit(1);
350 }
351 }
cb0c448a 352 fill_yuv_image(tmp_picture, frame_count, c->width, c->height);
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353 sws_scale(img_convert_ctx, tmp_picture->data, tmp_picture->linesize,
354 0, c->height, picture->data, picture->linesize);
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355 } else {
356 fill_yuv_image(picture, frame_count, c->width, c->height);
357 }
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358 }
359
115329f1 360
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361 if (oc->oformat->flags & AVFMT_RAWPICTURE) {
362 /* raw video case. The API will change slightly in the near
363 futur for that */
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364 AVPacket pkt;
365 av_init_packet(&pkt);
115329f1 366
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367 pkt.flags |= PKT_FLAG_KEY;
368 pkt.stream_index= st->index;
002c01a6 369 pkt.data= (uint8_t *)picture;
e928649b 370 pkt.size= sizeof(AVPicture);
115329f1 371
e928649b 372 ret = av_write_frame(oc, &pkt);
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373 } else {
374 /* encode the image */
002c01a6 375 out_size = avcodec_encode_video(c, video_outbuf, video_outbuf_size, picture);
cb0c448a 376 /* if zero size, it means the image was buffered */
b5bc8591 377 if (out_size > 0) {
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378 AVPacket pkt;
379 av_init_packet(&pkt);
115329f1 380
002c01a6 381 pkt.pts= av_rescale_q(c->coded_frame->pts, c->time_base, st->time_base);
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382 if(c->coded_frame->key_frame)
383 pkt.flags |= PKT_FLAG_KEY;
384 pkt.stream_index= st->index;
385 pkt.data= video_outbuf;
386 pkt.size= out_size;
115329f1 387
cb0c448a 388 /* write the compressed frame in the media file */
e928649b 389 ret = av_write_frame(oc, &pkt);
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390 } else {
391 ret = 0;
392 }
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393 }
394 if (ret != 0) {
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395 fprintf(stderr, "Error while writing video frame\n");
396 exit(1);
397 }
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398 frame_count++;
399}
400
ceaf1909 401static void close_video(AVFormatContext *oc, AVStream *st)
e70fcf07 402{
01f4895c 403 avcodec_close(st->codec);
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404 av_free(picture->data[0]);
405 av_free(picture);
406 if (tmp_picture) {
407 av_free(tmp_picture->data[0]);
408 av_free(tmp_picture);
409 }
410 av_free(video_outbuf);
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411}
412
413/**************************************************************/
414/* media file output */
415
416int main(int argc, char **argv)
417{
418 const char *filename;
419 AVOutputFormat *fmt;
420 AVFormatContext *oc;
e70fcf07 421 AVStream *audio_st, *video_st;
8de65d4f 422 double audio_pts, video_pts;
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423 int i;
424
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425 /* initialize libavcodec, and register all codecs and formats */
426 av_register_all();
115329f1 427
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428 if (argc != 2) {
429 printf("usage: %s output_file\n"
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430 "API example program to output a media file with libavformat.\n"
431 "The output format is automatically guessed according to the file extension.\n"
432 "Raw images can also be output by using '%%d' in the filename\n"
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433 "\n", argv[0]);
434 exit(1);
435 }
115329f1 436
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437 filename = argv[1];
438
439 /* auto detect the output format from the name. default is
440 mpeg. */
441 fmt = guess_format(NULL, filename, NULL);
442 if (!fmt) {
443 printf("Could not deduce output format from file extension: using MPEG.\n");
444 fmt = guess_format("mpeg", NULL, NULL);
445 }
446 if (!fmt) {
447 fprintf(stderr, "Could not find suitable output format\n");
448 exit(1);
449 }
115329f1 450
8de65d4f 451 /* allocate the output media context */
bc874dae 452 oc = av_alloc_format_context();
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453 if (!oc) {
454 fprintf(stderr, "Memory error\n");
455 exit(1);
456 }
457 oc->oformat = fmt;
e70fcf07 458 snprintf(oc->filename, sizeof(oc->filename), "%s", filename);
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459
460 /* add the audio and video streams using the default format codecs
461 and initialize the codecs */
462 video_st = NULL;
463 audio_st = NULL;
464 if (fmt->video_codec != CODEC_ID_NONE) {
465 video_st = add_video_stream(oc, fmt->video_codec);
466 }
467 if (fmt->audio_codec != CODEC_ID_NONE) {
468 audio_st = add_audio_stream(oc, fmt->audio_codec);
469 }
470
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471 /* set the output parameters (must be done even if no
472 parameters). */
473 if (av_set_parameters(oc, NULL) < 0) {
474 fprintf(stderr, "Invalid output format parameters\n");
475 exit(1);
476 }
477
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478 dump_format(oc, 0, filename, 1);
479
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480 /* now that all the parameters are set, we can open the audio and
481 video codecs and allocate the necessary encode buffers */
482 if (video_st)
483 open_video(oc, video_st);
484 if (audio_st)
485 open_audio(oc, audio_st);
486
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487 /* open the output file, if needed */
488 if (!(fmt->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE)) {
489 if (url_fopen(&oc->pb, filename, URL_WRONLY) < 0) {
490 fprintf(stderr, "Could not open '%s'\n", filename);
491 exit(1);
492 }
493 }
115329f1 494
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495 /* write the stream header, if any */
496 av_write_header(oc);
115329f1 497
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498 for(;;) {
499 /* compute current audio and video time */
500 if (audio_st)
e06d3d55 501 audio_pts = (double)audio_st->pts.val * audio_st->time_base.num / audio_st->time_base.den;
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502 else
503 audio_pts = 0.0;
115329f1 504
8de65d4f 505 if (video_st)
e06d3d55 506 video_pts = (double)video_st->pts.val * video_st->time_base.num / video_st->time_base.den;
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507 else
508 video_pts = 0.0;
509
115329f1 510 if ((!audio_st || audio_pts >= STREAM_DURATION) &&
8de65d4f
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511 (!video_st || video_pts >= STREAM_DURATION))
512 break;
115329f1 513
8de65d4f 514 /* write interleaved audio and video frames */
e70fcf07 515 if (!video_st || (video_st && audio_st && audio_pts < video_pts)) {
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516 write_audio_frame(oc, audio_st);
517 } else {
518 write_video_frame(oc, video_st);
519 }
520 }
521
522 /* close each codec */
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523 if (video_st)
524 close_video(oc, video_st);
525 if (audio_st)
526 close_audio(oc, audio_st);
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527
528 /* write the trailer, if any */
529 av_write_trailer(oc);
115329f1 530
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531 /* free the streams */
532 for(i = 0; i < oc->nb_streams; i++) {
8720de5b 533 av_freep(&oc->streams[i]->codec);
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534 av_freep(&oc->streams[i]);
535 }
536
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537 if (!(fmt->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE)) {
538 /* close the output file */
539 url_fclose(&oc->pb);
540 }
541
542 /* free the stream */
543 av_free(oc);
544
545 return 0;
546}